Leptospirosis: Cause, Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention, Diagnosis Noteskarts

LEPTOSPIROSIS

GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND –

Leptospirosis is bacterial diseases which are spread through the animal urine mainly by the rats so it is also called ‘Rat disease’. Human can get leptospirosis through direct contact with urine from infected animals or through water, soil or food contamination with their urine.

  1. It also spread by the pets’ wild animals.

This disease was first described by the Adolf Weil in 1886 in Germany so it is also known as Weil’s disease.

  1. Liptospira required high humidity for survival. So it is commonly seen in the rainy season and flooding conditions or in stagnant water.

Causative agents of LEPTOSPIROSIS

Leptospirosis is caused by the helical bacteria genus Leptospira belonging to the family Leptospiraceae.

Life cycle of Leptospira or microbiology—

  • Bacteria firstly enter the animals (rats, mice, dogs, rabbits, cats etc.) blood stream through the contaminated food and water and growth vigorously in the human body.
  • Then, it reaches the animals kidneys and finally reach the glomerular or tubular parts of nephron.
  • It shows not any severe damage in the host animals and freely growth and colonies ( interaction between both the bacteria and animal is called commensal ism)
  • After the colonies bacteria are excreted through urine and infect the other animals or humans.
  • When the human are direct exposure to the animals urine or infected water, infected soils then face many problems.
  • Infection are starts when the humans are direct contact with the infected spores of bacteria on its body fluids or organs like( eyes, nose, mouth, wounds, cuts/scratch etc.) Then bacteria enters into the human blood streams and growth vigorously and weak the immune system and then finally reached to the humans organs like( Hearts, Lungs, Liver, Kidneys, Brain, Uterus)

  • Bacteria are also infecting the growing foetus in mother body because it crosses the placenta.
  • Infections in Hearts—When bacteria are enters into the heart then it forms the colonies in the heart arteries or coronary arteries and blocks the passage of blood and nutrients from one parts to the others parts. Then patients experience the many heart related problems.
  • Infection in lungs— Through the blood bacteria enters into the lungs and finally reach to the alveoli and infect alveoli. Due to the infection alveoli are swell up and reduce the capacity of gaseous exchange in the human lungs. Bacterial growth also produces the chemical substances which appears in the cough/ mucus and then deposited in the wind pipe. Then person experience the many breathing related problems and finally death.
  • Infection in Liver—When bacteria enters in liver then destroy the liver cells and reduce liver activity due to infection foods are not assimilate proper.Due to infection billirubin and billiburdin not utilise proper and deposite into the other parts of body and show yellowish appearance and finally cause In higher case liver are swell up.
  • Infections in kidney—After entering in kidney bacteria finally reached in tubular part of nephron and get colonised and cause infections. Due to infection kidney are not filter blood properly so urea are appear in human urine and bacteria are also appear. After higher infections nephritis condition also seen.
  • Infections in Brain—Bacteria are also cross the blood brain barrier and reach into the brain and cause infection. Bacteria form colonies in human brain and create haemorrhage condition and also cause meningitis condition in brain layer.
  • Infections in Uterus—Some time bacteria are also grow in uterus through blood and infects.

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Sign and Symptoms—

  • Primary symptoms—
  • High fever
  • Headache
  • Muscular pain
  • Chills
  • Redness of eyes
  • Yellowish of eyes
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Intestinal pain
  • Rashes on skins

 

  • Secondary or severe symptoms—

Due to long time exposure of bacteria patents may have kidney failure, heart failure, liver failure, meningitis etc.

Treatment of the disease—

Disclaimer :- We make this Post only Educational purpose | If you are seeing any symptom, then share it with the doctor. The treatment given in this Post is just for Knowledge.

It is oldest disease and not cause any severe damage in human.

In many people it is treat by self-immunity power about 2-3 weeks.

  • Medicine used for initial symptoms.
  • Amoxicillin or cefexime – bd
  • Aceclofenac + paracetamol – bd
  • Diethylcarbamazine – bd
  • Omeprazole + domiperadone – bd
  • Multivitamin with vitamin C – od ( at noon).
  • Cefetriaxone / cefodoxime injection with dexamethasone.
  • Medicine used in severe condition.
  • Azithromycine – bd
  • Amoxicillin or cefexime – bd
  • Aceclofenac + paracetamol – bd
  • Diethylcarbamazine – bd
  • Omeprazole + domiperadone – bd
  • Multivitamin with vitamin C – od ( at noon).
  • Cefetriaxone / cefodoxime injection with dexamethasone.

Preventions—

  1. Avoid the dirty places where the animals gathering or stagnant water ( if you see stagnant water or dirty place somewhere then we try to clean it)
  2. You always try to wears clean and full clothes and use the masks if you are going to market or crowding place.
  3. Major cause in developing area (where roads are not fit for vehicles).Avoid splashing water from vehicle after it rains or stagnant water.
  4. If by mistake you come in touch to infected area then wash properly and use sanitizer or use detergents or soap.
  5. Avoid the outside food and fatty food .Take balance diet with full of nutrients like (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, etc.
  6. If you are interested in pets like (mouse, rats, rabbits, dogs, cats etc.) Then maintains their proper hygiene and take care of properly and give fresh food and water.

Diagnosis—

  • Blood and urine test – during this test urea level and protein level are high to normal value.
  • Liver function test – swallowing in liver and increased level of bilirubin.
  • X- rays
  • ELISA
  • PCR

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