COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Short notes | Noteskarts | 2022 |

COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

Definition of COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) —

  • COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is a multifactorial entity with a wide range of clinical manifestations and leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally.
  • It is characterised by progressive, partially reversible airflow obstruction and lungs hyperinflation with significant extra pulmonary manifestations and comorbid conditions.
  • It is a group of progressive lungs disease. It is a preventable and treatable respiratory disorder largely caused by smoking, and long-term exposure to irritating gases and particulate matter. COPD often occurs in people exposed to fumes from burning fuel during cooking and heated in poorly ventilated homes.

Symptoms COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)—

  • Symptoms include breathing difficulty (Dyspnoea on exertion), cough, more mucus production (sputum), and wheezing.




  • It is mainly cause by the smoking or allergic substances. Due to long term exposure with contaminant. Respiratory receptors are modified into the secretory/glandular receptors some extent and release the large amount of mucus and obstruct the path of air.
  • In the smoking, heat is entering into the respiratory path and leads to damaging of the immunological cells or receptors create the resistance or functional deformity so it also leads to the COPD conditions.
  • Some harmful gaseous present in the smoking and industrial waste which are particulate, enters into the alveolar sac or alveoli and accumulate by forming the ligand compound with alveolar chemical and leads to decrease the surface area of the alveoli.
  • In about 1% of people with COPD, the disease results from the genetic disorder that cause low level of protein called alpha-1-antitrypsin. It is made in the liver and secreted into the blood stream.

Two main causes of COPD—


  1. EMPHYSEMA—Emphysema destroys the air sacs in the lungs and responsible for the  fibration, reduce elasticity and surface decreasement of the alveoli, so finally obstruct the gaseous exchange.

  2. CHRONIC BRONCHITIS—It cause inflammation and narrowing of bronchial tube, which carry air towards lungs. It is characterized by daily cough and mucus production.


Clinical manifestations— COPD leads to many clinical manifestations.

  • Heart disease- congestive heart disease, ischemic heart disease.
  • Liver disease.
  • Lung cancer.
  • Respiratory infection (URTIs commonly include: Cough, Sore throat).
  • Mental disorders.
  • Pulmonary hypertension.
  • Muscle fatigue etc.


Pharmacological managements— For management of COPD general bronchodilator and fixed combination drugs are used.

General bronchodilator

  1. β-agonists
  • Short acting β-agonists (SABA).

Ex- Albuterol/salbutamol, fenoterol, terbutaline.

  • Long acting β-agonists (LABA).

Ex- salmeterol, formoterol.


General bronchodilator

  1. Muscarinic antagonist (anticholinergic).
  • Short acting (SAMA).

Ex- Ipratropium.

  • Long acting (LAMA)

Ex- Acilidinium, tiotropium, glycopyrrolate bromide.



  • Albuterol + Ipratropium.
  • Fenoterol + Ipratrropium.
  • Budesonide + Formoterol.
  • Fluticasone + Salmeterol.


Non-pharmacological management—

  • Cigarette smoking is the major causes of the COPD, so best management of COPD to avoid the smoking or to stop smoking now.
  • Tobacco consumption also leads to this disease so prevent the tobacco chewing (for managing tobacco chewing, many type of the pharmaceutical chewing products are available so you can replace these with tobacco).
  • Occupational exposure of chemical or particulate matter is another risk factor for the COPD, so you apply all the precautions during the working condition.
  • COPD with pneumonia is also many time the cause of death so regular vaccination requires against Pneumococcal pneumonia.
  • Try to avoid the industrial area and visit in good environmental conditions.
  • Follow/doing the regular pranayama, yoga, exercise etc. to increase the lung capacity or health.
  • Sometime diets plan also required to manage the disease so, always follow the rules and regulation which are regulated by our government.



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