Communicable Diseases Short Notes

Communicable Diseases

What is Communicable disease:-

A disease in which the causative organism may pass or carried from person to person directly or indirectly.
Example:- Cholera, Typhoid, Leprosy, Tuberculosis, etc.

Transmissions of Communicable disease:-

1. Direct:- In this case, by coming in direct contact with the infected person, the healthy person becomes a victim of infection. Direct contact such as handshake, kiss, hug, physical contact etc.
2. Indirect:- In this case, he influences the person indirectly like spreads through airdrops, chicks etc.



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1.     Respiratory infections :

Diseases Name Causative Agents Mode of transmission Prevention
1. Chicken Pox Varicella-Zoster (V-Z) ·         Transmitted by droplet infection

·         Transmitted by personal contact

·         It can also cross the placental barrier and infect the foetus.

Notification, Isolation for 6 days after the onset of rash.

Varicella Zoster Immunoglobulin can be given within 72 hours of ecposure.

2. Measles The causative agent is RNA paramyxo virus or Measles virus.

OR

Measles Virus

·         Infective material is secretion of nose, throat and respiratory tract

·         Transmission by droplet infection and droplet Nuclei

Isolation of the potient for 7 days after the rash.

Immunisation of contact with in 2 days of exposure.

Prevention by measles vaccination. It is given at 9 month of age.

3. Diphtheria ·         Corynebacterium diptherial

·         It is a gram positive rod shaped

·         Transmitted mainly by the droplet infection,

·         Transmitted through Fomites is also passible

Prevention is by immunization with DPT. It must be given at 6th, 10th and 14th month of a child.

A booster dose is given at 1 ½ year at 5 years DT is given.

4. Influenza. ·         Influenza virus ·         Transmitted by droplet

·         Infection or Droplet nuclei.

Influnza can be Prevented by the administration of Vaccines.

The Prophylactic drug is amantadine.



 
Diseases Name Causative Agents Mode of transmission Prevention
5. Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis ·         Transmitted by droplet infection & droplet nuclei

·         It is also transmitted by fomites.

·         Elies which transmit theinfect by contaminating food.

·         Poverty, overcrowding and poor ventilation.

Chemoprophylaxis

Give the suitable drugs such as INH, rifampicin and streptomycin.

Immunisation by BCG vaccination.

6. Whooping Cough Bordetella Pertussis. ·         Transmitted by the infected patient

·         Disease is spreads by droplet infection and through fomites.

Isolation of contact and cases.

Treatment with erythromycin.

Active immunization with pertussis vaccine or DPT vaccine.

 



2.     Intestinal Infections :-

Diseases Name Causative Agents Mode of transmission Prevention
1. Poliomyelitis Polio virus

Type-1

Type-2

Type-3

·         Transmitted by infected person.

·         Transmission by fecal-oral route.

·         Direct infection by contaminated fingers

·         Notification and isolation of the patient.

·         Proper disposal of urine and faces avoidance of overcrowding in school and in public gatherings.

·         Immunisation with salk vaccine and sabine vaccine.

2. Cholera Vibrio cholera ·         Fecal contamination of water.

·         Direct contact through contaminated fingers while handling excreta and fomites.

·         Isolation and notification

·         Treatment by antibiotic like tetracycline.

·         Prevention by cholera vaccine, especially during fairs and festivals.

3. Typhoid Fever Solmonellatyphi ·         Transmitted by contaminated water and food.

·         Also transmitted by fingers & flies.

·         Transmitted by Feces and urine.

·         Notification to health authorities.

·         Sanitary measures like safe

·         Detection of carriers and treating them

·         Immunisation with TAB vaccine.

4. Hepatitis

Hepatitis-A

 

 

 

 

 

Hepatitis-B

 

Hepatitis-A virus

 

 

 

 

 

Hepatitis-B  virus

 

·         It is transmitted through contaminated water food and milk.

·         Homosexuallty is also cause for transmission.

 

 

·         Transmitted through contaminated syringes and needles, transfusion,tattooing etc.

·         Also transmitted through placenta and through sexual contact.

 

·         Safe disposal of excreta.

·         Prevention of contamination of water, food and mill.

·         Passive immunization with human normal immunoglobulin.

 



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This Post Has 2 Comments

  1. Ikramul Hussain

    Vary nice notes..thank you so much sir but our exam coming on 26th May so give me all notes social pharmacy chapter 4….

  2. Ikramul Hussain

    Diploma 1st year notes given imidatly

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