Pharmaceutical analysis Notes PDF

Unit: 1

(a) Pharmaceutical analysis- Definition and scope
i) Different techniques of analysis
ii) Methods of expressing concentration
iii) Primary and secondary standards.
iv) Preparation and standardization of various molar and normal solutions- Oxalic acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate and ceric ammonium sulphate

(b)Errors: Sources of errors, types of errors, methods of minimizing errors,
accuracy, precision and significant figures

(c)Pharmacopoeia, Sources of impurities in medicinal agents,limit tests.

Unit: 2
  • Acid base titration: Theories of acid base indicators, classification of acid base titrations and theory involved in titrations of strong, weak, and very weak acids and bases, neutralization curves
  • Non aqueous titration: Solvents, acidimetry and alkalimetry titration and estimation of Sodium benzoate and Ephedrine HCl
Unit: 3
  • Precipitation titrations: Mohr’s method, Volhard’s, Modified
    Volhard’s, Fajans method, estimation of sodium chloride.
  • Complexometric titration: Classification, metal ion indicators, masking
    and demasking reagents, estimation of Magnesium sulphate, and calcium
  • Gravimetry: Principle and steps involved in gravimetric analysis. Purity
    of the precipitate: co-precipitation and post precipitation, Estimation of
    barium sulphate.
  • Basic Principles,methods and application of diazotisation titration.
Unit: 4
  • Redox titrations
    (a) Concepts of oxidation and reduction
    (b) Types of redox titrations (Principles and applications)
    Cerimetry, Iodimetry, Iodometry, Bromatometry, Dichrometry, Titration with
    potassium iodate
Unit: 5
  • Electrochemical methods of analysis

Conductometry- Introduction, Conductivity cell, Conductometric
titrations, applications. 

Potentiometry – Electrochemical cell, construction and working
of reference (Standard hydrogen, silver chloride electrode and
calomel electrode) and indicator electrodes (metal electrodes and
glass electrode), methods to determine end point of potentiometric
titration and applications.

Polarography – Principle, Ilkovic equation, construction and
working of dropping mercury electrode and rotating platinum
electrode, applications