Human Anatomy & Physiology Notes PDF

Unit: 1
  • Introduction to human body
    Definition and scope of anatomy and physiology, levels of structural organization and body systems, basic life processes, homeostasis, basic anatomical terminology.
  • Cellular level of organization

Structure and functions of cell, transport across cell membrane, cell division, cell junctions. General principles of cell communication, intracellular signaling pathway activation by extracellular signal molecule, Forms of intracellular signaling:

  1. Contact-dependent
  2. Paracrine
  3. Synaptic
  4. Endocrine
  • Tissue level of organization
    Classification of tissues, structure, location and functions of epithelial, muscular and nervous and connective tissues.
Unit: 2
  • Integumentary system
    Structure and functions of skin.
  • Skeletal system
    Divisions of skeletal system, types of bone, salient features and functions of bones of axial and appendicular skeletal system.
    Organization of skeletal muscle, physiology of muscle contraction, neuromuscular junction.
  • Joints
    Structural and functional classification, types of joints movements and its articulation
Unit: 3
  • Body fluids and blood
    Body fluids, composition and functions of blood, hemopoeisis, formation of hemoglobin, anemia, mechanisms of coagulation, blood grouping, Rh factors, transfusion, its significance and disorders of blood, Reticuloendothelial system.
  • Lymphatic system
    Lymphatic organs and tissues, lymphatic vessels, lymph circulation and functions of lymphatic system
Unit: 4
  • Peripheral nervous system:
    Classification of peripheral nervous system: Structure and functions of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Origin and functions of spinal and cranial nerves.
  • Special senses
    Structure and functions of eye, ear, nose and tongue and their disorders.
Unit: 5
  • Cardiovascular system
    Heart – anatomy of heart, blood circulation, blood vessels, structure and functions of artery, vein and capillaries, elements of conduction system of heart and heart beat, its regulation by autonomic nervous system, cardiac output, cardiac cycle. Regulation of blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiogram and disorders of heart.